India: My Food Photoblog

In October 2011, I spent a month in northern India doing an International Medicine clerkship for school. I flew in to New Delhi and took a train 6 hours north to Dehradun, in the foothills of the Himalayas, where I spent most of my time. I also visited Rishikesh, Mussoorie, Patti village, and Agra (the Taj Mahal!) It was always my goal to take photographs of the food I ate and post them on the blog. Obviously, it’s taken a ridiculously long time, but here we go! I apologize that the following pictures aren’t the greatest because A.) I’m no Ansel Adams and B.) I was using a circa 2004 digital camera. I hope you find the photographs interesting nonetheless. I obviously didn’t photograph everything I ate, but here are some of the food-related pictures.

A Rice Field in Patti

Cattle And Chicken Living Outside Together

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The Price of Food

America is the richest nation on the planet and we spend less of our income on food than any other country.  In 1949, the average American spent 22% of our income on food.  Currently, we’re spending only about 10% of our income on food. This is historically unprecedented.

Some might say, “How is this a bad thing?” Now we have more money to spend on computers, entertainment, education, travel, or any number of things. Perhaps, if your goal is to “have it all.” I’m not so sure that’s a great goal. I’m also fairly convinced that those extras we want to spend money on are not more valuable than the health of our planet, ourselves and the people and animals who provide our food. Some might also say now everyone can afford food because it’s cheap. Let it be known that I care a great deal about food security for American families. But we need to become more concerned about making food fair (to animals, the land, and farmers/workers) and affordable instead of cheap. Will that mean spending more money on food? Most likely. When someone makes more money each month (a fair living wage/salary) then food can be affordable instead of cheap.

The current food system doesn’t reflect the “true cost” of producing it. For example, the Coalition of Immokalee Workers in Florida, a group of tomato pickers (they pick around 1/3 of the nation’s tomatoes), is fighting for a penny/lb of tomatoes increase in their pay. They barely manage on their current pay and live in poverty. A penny/lb pay increase might raise their standard of living to acceptable, but the CEOs and executives don’t think they deserve fair pay. That’s why our tomatoes are so “cheap.” Someone else is paying the price.

Frankly, we’re not putting enough of our resources to providing good quality, humanely raised, healthy food for everyone. That is, we’re only putting 10% of our monetary resources toward food which is not enough! An alternative theory is that companies are pilfering off too much in profits and that’s where we could find the extra money for a fair food system. It’s tough to prove, but it’s a good thought and certainly corporate profits do get in the way of affordable food. The pervasive goals of cheap food and high profits drive policies and procedures that don’t mesh with the greater goals of a truly fair and sustainable food system.

If the rest of the world spends a higher percentage of their income on food, regardless of annual income, why can’t we? Why is America so special that we can only spend 10% of our income on food? I’m not so sure it’s that we feel special, it’s just that as far as priorities go, food doesn’t get much respect. I think it’s about time we get back to the basics and put more money into a fair and responsible food system.


The Truth Is Somewhere in the Middle

I had the great pleasure to attend a lecture given by Dr. Temple Grandin last night at the University of Iowa. She has done innumerable positive things in the cattle industry and her work cannot go without praise. Her talk was mainly about the autism spectrum, but also included some tidbits about her work in the cattle industry.

Dr. Temple Grandin put two very important concepts in my head last night.

1. The truth is somewhere in the middle.

I think this is great advice and bound to be true. It’s something for both sides of any issue to realize. In my thoughts and writings on food I try to follow this sentiment. But, like all humans sometimes I fail and become entrenched on one side of an issue or fail to consider the opposing viewpoint fully.

I don’t think everyone should become a vegan. I don’t think everyone should be vegetarian. I think the lifestyles are fine and people should not be judged for being vegan or vegetarian. And it’s most definitely not my goal to end all animal agriculture! I do believe in a world where humans consume animals for food and other uses.

But I don’t think current industrial agriculture is the pinnacle of greatness that some claim it to be. I think food corporations and meat processors have too much power. I think there are a lot of slaughterhouse workers and migrant field workers that don’t have very good jobs. I think there is a lot of room for improvement in our food system.

2. The details are extremely important.

There was one cringe-worthy moment in the Q&A when a 20-something-year-old girl asked Dr. Grandin what she thought about “toxins in animal feed” and “methane from cattle and global warming” and “pesticides in our crops”. She was very vague and Dr. Grandin pointed this out. This is when she reiterated that the details are important. I agree. This girl was made to look rather foolish. I think it’s unfortunate if you take this as an example of left-wing animal activists who get shut down when Dr. Grandin talks to them. The problem was not this girl’s concerns about agriculture or potential environmental effects. Rather, this girl hadn’t thought too hard about the details. When asked “what toxins?” by Dr. Grandin, she should have had a definite response. Like why are we using ractopamine in hog feed or why would anyone use Zilmax in their cattle?

In conclusion, let’s all try to remember that the truth is more than likely somewhere in the middle of two starkly opposed viewpoints. Vague conversations about our food system will not cut it and we all need to get more interested in the details.  It’s time-consuming and sometimes frustrating to do the necessary research to make sure you’re not missing the details. But in the long run, details are what will make the difference. I’m reminded of the apt phrase, “God is in the details.”


I’m Not the Only One!

I do not raise cattle or grow crops. I am not a graduate student in agricultural science. I don’t work for Cargill or the USDA. So what right do I have to blog about food issues and make suggestions for improving the food system? I might find this argument mildly compelling if it weren’t for the fact that I’m not the only one who feels this way! Farmers across the country think like I do and are asking for change. In a lot of cases, farmers are making change and paving the path toward a better food system that bucks the industrial trend. Here are a few for your consideration.

Joel Salatin: The crown prince of the pasture. What else can I say? This man is a poster child for raising animals responsibly with hard work and some headstrong common sense. He’s a prolific writer as well, check out some of his superb books including Folks, This Ain’t Normal! From his website, “We are in the redemption business: healing the land, healing the food, healing the economy, and healing the culture…Experience the satisfaction of knowing your food and your farmer, building community. We are your clean meat connection.

Polyface Farms, courtesy of Jessica Reeder

Galen Bontrager Farm (Kalona, IA): Galen is awesome! We buy beef, chicken, eggs and Thanksgiving turkey from him! He’s a former apprentice of none other than Joel Salatin. From Galen’s website, ” I am a direct-marketing farm entrepreneur dedicated to providing superior quality food using innovative practices that heal the land, respect animal welfare, and strengthen the local community. I am your “beyond organic” farm-food connection. I am an education and information outreach to consumers and producers who seek to bring redemption to their food, environment, land, animals, water quality, and community.

Grass Run Farms (Dorchester, IA): We buy bacon and hot dogs from these wonderful people! From their website, “Grass Run Farm stands for long-term land stewardship, sound family values, and the far-reaching health benefits of grass-fed and pasture-raised meats. We’re building healthy soils, managing pastures that sequester tons of atmospheric carbon and tending livestock in a humane and respectful manner.

La Quercia Artisan Cured Meats (Norwalk, IA): These people make some of the tastiest prosciutto in the world! From their website, “We use no pigs from CAFOs (large animal confinement facilities).” Oh, how different than most pork product manufacturers! Just a bit more about their pig philosophy, “All pigs must have access to the out-of-doors, have room to move around and socially congregate, and be able to root in deep bedding.  This respects the pigs’ social instincts and natural behaviors.”

George Naylor (Churdan, IA): He grows corn & soybeans in Iowa, but doesn’t use Genetically Modified Seeds! He’s a former President of the National Family Farm Coalition. He fights hard against the power of Monsanto and the GMO seed monopoly. Food Democracy Now recently quoted him as saying, “Farmers, ranchers, and the public should not want ‘cheap’ food, but food of good quality that’s affordable.

Sugar Mountain Farm (West Topsham, VT): Shockingly, they raise pastured pigs in frigid Vermont because it IS possible. They don’t buy commercial hog feed. They don’t have huge manure lagoons next to their farm. They are a No Weird Stuff farm! From their website, “We are a small, family owned and operated farm in the mountains of Vermont. We breed and raise pigs all naturally on pasture and hay plus dairy to produce our high quality pork as well as live piglets for people who would like to raise their own.

Barrington Natural Farms: They serve the Chicagoland area!

From their website, “Barrington Natural Farms is sustainable “pasture” farm providing our Chicago-area customers with locally grown, organically-raised grass-fed beef, pasture-raised chicken and pork, and free-range eggs. All of our livestock are raised outdoors on pasture, eating what nature intended – naturally-grown ryegrass, timothy grass, meadow fescue, clover, and alfalfa in the pasture, with the chickens and hogs pasture forage diet supplemented with organically-certified, non-GMO grains and surplus organic fruits and vegetables.

 We are dedicated to using sustainable agriculture practices, so we don’t use any chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, or any other “cides” on our land or in our animals.  We rotate the chickens, pigs, and cattle to fresh pasture regularly during the spring, summer, and fall months, and use a deep bedding system in the winter which we then convert to garden compost in the spring.

 We do not feed, implant, or inject our animals with hormones, antibiotics, chemical dewormers, or any other pharmaceutical concoctions typically used in the industrial/confinement-based food system, except in very rare circumstances to treat a specific life-threatening illness.  The fresh air, clean water, lush pasture, low-stress lifestyle, and clean, mineral-rich soil keep our livestock exceptionally healthy.

Mike Callicrate (Colorado): Mike is an independent cattle producer and meat processor. He has a degree in animal science from Colorado State University. He’s not a big fan of pink slime and the industrialized meat system. From his most recent blog post, “The “fat is bad”, “food should be cheap”, “Wall Street is the economy”, “only an industrial food system can feed the world” mentality, reminds us of how science, poor judgment and industry controlled government agencies can lead to some very bad outcomes. It is time to open the farm and ranch gates and packing house doors, fully revealing our food system to the public.

This is but the tip of the iceberg of farmers who stand against industrialized agriculture. I am not the only one and I am not a lone nut who associates with other nuts like Michael Pollan & Mark Bittman. I have never met either of them, but we do have something in common. We’re interested in supporting fair non-industrialized sustainable local-regional food systems that are healthier for the planet, animals and people.


Dodging the Issue and Missing the Point: Pink Slime

LFTB or pink slime is 100% beef. That’s the claim. Is it true? Yes, it did come from a cow and is 95% lean even though the proteins aren’t quite the same and there’s more collagen content compared with ground chuck. Without LFTB would we really need 1.5 million more cattle slaughtered every year to make up for the demand? I really question these calculations and have no idea who did them in the first place. Is the remaining ammonium in the resultant product unsafe? I really don’t think so. Does LFTB make a healthier product because it’s leaner? Sure, but does NOT eating a burger make for a healthier choice too, heck yeah! But does any of this really matter?

No, because that’s not the point. The shoot the messenger and dispel the myths approach is appalling. It’s not surprising that Beef Products, Inc. and the supportive beef industry have stooped to this.

Sure, some people have jumped on the bandwagon thinking this is an inherently vile and unsafe product that must be outright banned. I’m not one of those people. Sure I question the safety because, after all, the trimmings need to be treated with ammonium hydroxide gas to be deemed safe for human consumption. And BPI products have tested positive for E.coli O157:H7 in the past. Luckily, no one seems to have become ill from their products. And it most certainly IS used as a “filler” regardless of its beef is beef status. But the real issue?

Transparency.

Beef Products, Inc. has failed in the transparency department. They didn’t want the product labeled. The guise is that the USDA said it didn’t have to be. But was it that simple? It most certainly was not. Now, instead of saying to the general public, “We understand that it’s an unappetizing process that you were not previously aware of, but we think it has a benefit, here’s why, and we’re going to slap a label on it.”

That level of humility, honesty, and admission of failure at transparency, all in one sentence, was all it would have taken. Instead, BPI gets Terry Branstad (governor of Iowa) and two other governors to speak out for pink slime and against the media “smear campaign.” They make t-shirts saying “Dude, It’s Beef”, make a brand new website dispelling the myths of pink slime, and buy up Google Ads for searches on pink slime. They admit no fault and play the martyr. Oh, poor BPI millionaire CEO who doesn’t like that people find his product unappetizing and don’t like that it was put into ground beef without their knowledge. I have zero sympathy for him. I do have sympathy for any of his plant workers who might be out of a job. That’s on the company for not being transparent. Another example of their lack of transparency involves reporting E.coli and Salmonella testing results. In 2010, they promised to do just that. The company then scrapped the plan. Thanks for the transparency! They’ve also sued Iowa State University (a public university) to prevent release of research a professor did for BPI from coming to light. The list goes on…

I hope the beef industry pays attention to this and learns the right lesson. So far, they have not learned the right lesson and continue the same tired tactics. The right lesson is that humility, honesty, and transparency are more important than crisis management PR campaigns and protecting your bottom line at all costs.

Here’s a superb timeline of BPI and pink slime: http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2012/04/bpi-and-pink-slime-a-timeline/


The Human Side of Food

There’s a lot of talk about what food you should eat, i.e. is this contributing to health? There’s also a lot of talk about animal welfare, i.e. are we truly respecting the animal being raised. I think there’s a third component to “food” that we don’t talk about nearly often enough: the human side.

People raise animals. People pick vegetables. People work in the meat processing plants. People put the food on shelves or transport it to the local farmer’s market. Without people we would not have food.

I wish I could write a piece about how all people involved in food production from farm to plate had a good life and were treated fairly. I really wish I could write that kind of praise. But it’s just not true.

I’d like to share a story that has fortunately been making the rounds in the food activist community as of late. The story of the Immokalee, FL tomato farm workers. It’s not a new issue, the CIW formed in 1993. Recently, Daniel Klein and Mirra Fine, of Perennial Plate renown, made a video highlighting the struggles of the workers picking 1/3 of the tomatoes that end up on your plate.

We have a caricature of what a “farmer” is in our heads. He probably looks something like the guy in Grant Wood’s famous American Gothic painting from 1930. Of course there’s been a slight update in our caricature, but take a moment and picture in your mind a “farmer.” Does he or she look anything like Lupe Gonzalo from the above video? Probably not. The American public is not aware that there are other “farm-workers” who do not grow corn, wheat & soybeans. Rather, they are the people out in the fields picking strawberries or tomatoes. They are migrant workers and they are systematically denied fair pay and working conditions and it’s been going on for decades. Barry Estabrook, author of the book Tomatoland, calls modern day tomato pickers “slaves.”

A Florida-resident recently wrote this letter to Publix (grocery store chain) CEO Ed Crenshaw that appears on the Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW) website.

“Currently they must fill the 35 pound basket with tomatoes, deliver it to the truck (about 100 feet away) and return to pick more tomatoes EVERY 4 MINUTES TO MAKE THE MINIMUM WAGE OF $7.50 PER HOUR!”

Immokalee Worker Carrying Tomatoes

Photo © Scott Robertson, 2007

The Coalition of Immokalee Workers is asking for a 1 penny per pound raise. One penny. I would gladly pay this cost at the grocery store. But grocery stores and corporations are worried about how this one penny difference affects their bottom line.

McDonald’s has signed on to work with CIW. So has Taco Bell, Subway, Burger King, Trader Joe’s, Whole Foods Market and many more. The two high-profile holdouts are Publix and somewhat surprisingly Chipotle Mexican Grill. Chipotle’s holdout is the most disappointing. For a company that prides itself on “Food With Integrity,” this is not always the case.

The conditions faced by the Immokalee workers are not an anomaly. Migrant workers are exploited all over the country in various agriculture industries. The problem is American food corporations and customers who are obsessed with low prices. Prices so low that things have to be done that are very unsavory to meet the price goals. We have to raise laying hens in battery cages. We have to bus in migrant workers to the fields and ask them to do back-breaking work all day long to make minimum wage at best. There are no benefits or health insurance. These workers are at the bottom of the totem pole. The CIW is the only voice they have and I fully support their organization. We need a food system that doesn’t exploit those who have the least power but do the most important work. We need a food system that is obsessed with fairness instead of lowering prices and maximizing profits at any cost. The Coalition of Immokalee Workers is fighting for fairness, will you join them?

Resources:

Please read this article by Mirra Fine (of Perennial Plate) for a more in-depth account of Lupe Gonzalo and the struggles of the Immokalee Workers. Seriously, her article is about 1000x more informative and well-written than anything I could come up with. And her account is first-hand.

If you would like to read more from Barry Estabrook (author of Tomatoland), visit his blog at Politics of the Plate.


Are Parasites Plaguing Pastured Pigs?

Pigs Sugar Mountain Farm Pasture

©2007 Walter Jeffries, Sugar Mountain Farm

Here’s the story: Hogs were moved from being raised outdoors to being housed in temperature-controlled modern hog barns with about a thousand other hogs confined in pens for the welfare of the animal and safety of the product. No more harsh weather. No more parasites. So we’re told. Are parasites such a problem that we can’t safely raise hogs outdoors? Let’s find out.

One of the main concerns in pork is Trichinella spiralis which can cause disease in humans. I should note that currently only 0.013% of the U.S. swine herd is thought to be infected according to the CDC.

From the Pork Checkoff (pork.org):

The factors that have made U.S. pork safe with respect to Trichinella infection are all related to changes in production practices which eliminate these risks, including banning of uncooked waste feeding in all states and movement to confinement housing systems. Pork production in bio-secure housing systems with hygienic requirements for feed and feed storage and adequate rodent control drastically reduces the risk for exposure of pigs to Trichinella.”

From a 2001 report by the CDC: “The decrease in cases has mirrored the decline in prevalence of Trichinella in commercial pork products. In 1900, the trichinellosis prevalence in U.S. swine was estimated to be 1.41%. The estimated prevalence decreased to 0.125% during 1966–1970 and to 0.013% in 1995…Historically, the major sources of Trichinella-infected pork were swine fed garbage containing animal waste products…Other risk factors for Trichinella-infected pork include consumption by swine of small mammals infected with Trichinella, including rodents, raccoons, skunks, and opossums, and cannibalism among swine within an infected herd.”

So the mainstream story is that raising pigs outdoors means a greater likelihood of parasite infection and we need to continue the intensive barn confinement system to control the risk. But couldn’t this same decrease in likelihood of infection be achieved by knowledgeable pasture-based pig farmers? If we’re not feeding animal waste products to pastured pigs, then isn’t the only concern rodent & small mammal control? Do we really need confinement barns just to keep a few mice out? How many skunks are pigs eating out on the pasture? What if one single rodent gets into the confinement hog barn? It’s certainly possible. Mice manage to squeeze into households all the time. Let me propose that the primary reason for bringing hogs off the pasture and into the confinement barns has little to do with the safety of the pork products. Rather, confinement is only a tool to maximize production and minimize cost while reducing animal welfare and increasing environmental risk.

If you read this report by Intervet, Inc. (manufacturer of worming medication, apparently a division of Merck Pharmaceuticals) you’ll find out that parasites are a BIG problem in confinement operations. So much so that the reason for the report is to urge you to purchase their worming medications.

I’d like to share some quotes from a pastured pig farmer named Walter Jeffries who operates Sugar Mountain Farm in Vermont with his wife Holly and the rest of the Jeffries family.

From Walter Jeffries:

Reality Check #1: Factory farms routinely use heavy doses of medications to kill off parasites. Simply ask them what wormers and other medications they use injected or in their feeds. It will scare you.

Reality Check #2: We pasture and do not need to routinely use medications, antibiotics or chemical wormers to kill of parasites or such in our pigs or other livestock. Instead we use managed rotational grazing and natural feeds to produce healthy animals. We have never had any problems with parasites in our meat. Our meat is a higher quality and healthier product because it is raised naturally and humanely on pasture. Consumers who care about the animals, quality and their own health buy from pastured farmers and avoid the factory farms.”

Conclusion: Is keeping pigs in indoor confinement one way to reduce exposure to Trichinella? It would appear so and the industry would certainly push this point. They’re obviously depending on the use of worming medications though. But is it the only way? Certainly not. Pastured pork can be very tasty and parasite-free. There is no need for intensive confinement pork. Pasture-based farmers like Walter & Holly Jeffries are proving that they can get the same results as the “biosecure” conventional hog barns but with a much more sustainable, humane and environmentally friendly operation. Why are conventional farmers giving worm medications to the “safer” confined hogs? Sure, there are other worms than Trichinella. But why do farmers need to give worm medications to a “biosecure” pig that is “safer” because of “confinement.” That’s a good question. I think it’s one the conventional industry does not want to answer. And remember, just cook your pork to at least 145° to kill trichinella!

Bonus Link: Here’s an interesting NY Times Op Ed piece from 2009 about Trichinella and pork.

Bonus Observation: There’s a lot of talk about “biosecurity” by factory farmers when referring to keeping hogs safe from disease. Yet, every time I watch a tour of a modern hog barn on YouTube (for example) I always see a farmer in plain clothes walk up to the feeder and sift their bare hands pretty deep into the actual feed. How is that “biosecure?”